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|1||Writing a Bibliography: In APA Format (Basic)Abstract – Many book and scholarly journal editors as well as grant reviewers and others require that manuscripts they consider for publication be prepared in APA (American Psychological Association) format. This is true in many disciplines, by no means limited to psychology or even the broader social sciences. What is APA format? Why is it used in areas outside of psychology? And what do writers need to do in order to get their manuscripts into this format?
APA format is a standard set of conventions for formatting manuscripts. It contains detailed instructions for in-text citation references, references lists, pagination, margins, hierarchy of subheadings, running heads, etc. It has been adapted across a large number of disciplines (notably not including medical texts and journals, which have their own set of standardized conventions) for two reasons. First, there is a recognized need for standardization of these formatting parameters in order to make it easier for readers to be able to understand scholarly texts with the greatest possible ease and efficiency. Second, given this need, APA has developed an extremely thorough and comprehensive manual to accomplish this, and editors in other disciplines don’t need to waste time reinventing the wheel by developing alternative parallel formats. In addition, APA is conscientious about periodically updating their format manual, for example to incorporate references to material found on the World Wide Web, which did not exist when the first version of the manual was published.
The APA format manual is lengthy and complex but well-indexed and very explicit. It can be purchased online from a variety of sources and is available at most university bookstores. Brief guides may also be purchased and found online through your favorite search engine using keywords ‘APA formatting’.
Investing in your future by hiring an editor who is an expert in APA formatting as well as in the correct use of the English language can turn an average thesis into an excellent thesis. It pays to ensure that what many people consider to be one of the most important writings of their lives is of the highest quality possible.
|Dr. Nilesh B. Gajjar|
|2||Theory, Need and Function of TeachingAbstract – Teacher in role is a method of teaching that utilizes techniques of drama to facilitate education. It is a holistic teaching method designed to integrate critical thought, examination of emotion and moral values and factual data to broaden the learning experience and make it more relevant to everyday life situations. If the role of a teacher is to teach, the role of a student must be to learn. However, it has been agreed that learning is not only an exercise in reading and reciting facts, but in gaining a deeper insight of events and situations. This is where drama becomes an invaluable tool. Through the use of drama and dramatic conventions a teacher does not only teach and learn the what but also the why and how.
Broadly speaking, the purpose of teachers is to help students learn by imparting knowledge to them and by setting up a situation in which students can and will learn effectively. But teachers fill a complex set of roles, which vary from one society to another and from one educational level to another. Some of these roles are performed in the school, some in the community.
Teaching is not a mechanical process. It is an intricate, exacting, challenging job. Teaching can’t be boiled down to a convenient formula of “telling and testing”. It is the complex art of guiding pupils through a variety of selected experiences towards the attainment of a widening field of learning. Here the author wants to introduce the basic of teaching work.
|Dr. Paragi R. Shah|
|3||A Study of the Mathematical Achievement Based on Action Oriented Competencies for the Students of Grade VIIAbstract – The objectives of the present study were (i) To study the achievement level of the students of grade VII on a Competency based and Action oriented test in Mathematics.(ii) To study effect of Gender on the achievement level of the students of Grade VII.(iii) To study effect of Area on the achievement level of the students of Grade VII. The population of the study was the students of grade VII of Gujarat state. The sample for the study was selected by using purposive random sampling method. The present study was conducted on 120 students of twenty districts of Gujarat state. To collect the data for the present investigation the investigator used self constructed and standardized Competency based and an Action oriented test for the students of Grade VII in mathematics. After the analysis the researcher has found that there is no significant effect of gender and area on the achievement level of the students of grade VII except on competency no 4.7.11(4.7.11The Pupil Knows about cheque and different types of cheques.) and 6.7.5 (6.7.5Draws a line parallel to a given line through a point outside it by using set square.) respectively.||Prof. Komal Vyas|
|4||Models of Teaching: The Way of LearningAbstract – Models of Teaching have been defined in a number of ways. Some of the important definitions of teaching models are given here to have a wider perspective of this concept. Allen and Rayn (1969): Modeling is an individual demonstrating particular pattern which the trainee learns through imitation. Baundura (1969): Modeling demonstrates that virtually all learning phenomena resulting from direct experiences can occur on a vicarious basis through observation of other person’s behavior and its consequences for them B.K. Passi L.C. Singh and D.N. Sanasnwal (1991): A model of teaching consists of guidelines for designing educational activities and environments. Model of teaching is a plan that can also be utilized to shape courses of studies to design instructional material and to guide instruction. Educators and psychologist have designed several types of teaching models which provide suitable guidelines to the teachers for modifying the behavior of the learners. As a matter of fact some if the models of teaching have been in existence since time immemorial. In simple language a model of teaching may be defined as a blueprint designed in advance for providing necessary structure and direction to the teacher for realizing the stipulated objectives.||Dr. Kandarp Sejpal|
|5||Multimedia and its Various Roles in the SocietyAbstract – In the world of education and modernization, it’s very essential for an educators and society to develop the universal growth of the Children. Multimedia is an essential way for outstanding learning at the surface on Internet, Digital Laboratory, WAN, C.D. Rom, broadcasting Channels etc. Therefore, against the wind of globalization, experiments, changes and updating the society and educators must accept the responsibility to establish, practicing and application the new and modern strategy, techniques and methods in the process of teaching and learning. Here the author of this article attempts to introduce the highlights of multimedia and its role.||Jayeshkumar B. Bharvad|
|6||A Study of Abstract Reasoning of the Students of Standard IX of Ahmedabad CityAbstract – Abstract problems are often visual and typically do not involve social ideas. Abstract reasoning is usually assessed as part of intelligence testing. Abstract reasoning ability is important because it enables students to apply what they learn in complex ways. Many students with learning disabilities have weaknesses in abstract reasoning and can benefit from direct instruction in problem solving skills. They may also benefit from language therapy to help them learn to use language to understand and solve problems. In this paper, the researcher took the above mentioned research problem and find out the major conclusions.||Prin. Chirag Panchal|
|7||Significance of Educational Psychology for TeachersAbstract – A teacher acts as a philosopher and a guide to the students. He must know the growth and development of the child and his requirements at different levels. Educational psychology helps the teacher to study the ability, interests, intelligence, needs and adopt different techniques of teaching for effective communication. The utility of educational psychology for the teachers has been emphasized in both theory and practices of teaching and learning. In this way the author tries to introduce the significance of Educational Psychology for teacher through this article.||Parimal P. Gohil|
|8||A Study about Achievement of Students of Standard 11th in Chemistry SubjectAbstract – The present study was conducted to find out achievement of students in chemistry subjects with respect to the I.Q. level, gender, mother’s educational qualification level and mother’s educational qualification level of student’s. The investigator used random sampling methods for selecting sample. The data was collected from 2oo students with the help of Desai I.Q. test, Achievement Test in Chemistry. The statistical technique like mean, median, standard deviation and t-test was used to analyse the data. The study found that girls achieved more than the boys, students with high I.Q. achieve more than low I.Q. students, students with higher educational qualification of mother achieve more than low educational qualification of mother and students with higher educational qualification of father achieve more than low educational qualification of father.||Jignesh J. Parmar|
|9||Construction and Standardization of Literary Interest Inventory for the Students of Higher Secondary SchoolsAbstract – Literature is closely interwoven with human life. At school level, attempts are made to familiarize the students with literature through the medium of language. It becomes necessary to know to what extent these efforts have been successful in developing literary interest among students. Attempts have been made in India and abroad as well to measure the interest of the students in which literature is taken as one component. But there are very rare attempts to prepare literary interest inventory to measure literary interest of the students.
The aim of the present study is to construct and standardize literary interest inventory to measure literary interest of the higher secondary school students. The sample consisted of 3119 students studying in the higher secondary school of Gujarat state in the year 2012-13. Sample was selected via multistage techniques. Norms were established for the selected sample. The field of the present study is psychological Testing the present study is a quantitative research and falls in the category of applied research. The present study was a survey type research.
Initially 143 items were prepared for literary interest inventory. In piloting, inventory consisting of 100 items with 10 components was administered on 400 students. After item analysis, literary interest inventory was prepared consisting 80 items with 10 components.
The Test-retest reliability of the inventory was found 0.87 the split half reliability was found 0.96 face validity was also obtained through the opinions of 21 experts. The criterion related validity was 0.85 whereas teacher criterion validity was 0.86 percentile rank, standard score and stanine scores were obtained of the students for the range of scores between 150 to 400.Thus, the literary interest inventory for higher secondary school students was standardized.
|Dinesh R. Patel|
|10||Learning Types in EducationAbstract – “Teaching” as an activity does not exist: or at least it is meaningless to think about it in isolation. There is always an interaction between the Teacher, the Learner and the Subject being taught. This is not a wholly banal point, because;
|11||Construction and Standardization of Gujarati Language Proficiency Test for the Trainees of Primary Teacher Training Institute in Gujarat StateAbstract – Language is one of the greatest dimensions of human culture development. From the childhood human learns during the development of human kind in the family. All tests are designed to collect data to support an argument for certain policies or decisions. If the tests are used for different goals or purposes, the validity of that usage can and should be questioned. Additionally, the context, purpose, and goals for which a test is designed can change over time, sometimes radically. For that reason, data collected from older tests may not serve the goals, purposes, and decisions of current contexts. Objectives of the Test were to Construct and Standardize Gujarati Proficiency Test for Primary teacher trainees. To study the Gujarati Proficiency of teacher trainees in relation to following background variables: (a) Gender; (b) Type of Educational Institute and (iii) Area (iv) Zone (Habitat) [North/South/West/East]. The population of the study was the 800 Primary Teacher Trainees from Grant-in-aid College and Non Grant-In-Aid College of primary teacher training institute from Gujarat state. Validity and reliability of the Test found research test-retest carried out after 20 days and 30 days, according to the test-retest reliability were found 0.81 and 0.73 respectively, while rationale equal lance method of KR20 and KR 21 were found 0.72 and 0.70 respectively. Split- half Reliability of the test was also carried out and it was found 0.68. From the Reliability test, it is found that Reliability of the Gujarati Proficiency Test is high. Findings: (1) No significant difference was found between the mean scores of Male Primary Teacher Trainees and Female Primary Teacher Trainees on Total Scores of the Gujarati Language proficiency test. (2) No significant difference was found between the mean scores of Primary Teacher Trainees of Grant-In-Aid and Non-Grant-In-Aid Primary Teacher Trainees on Total Scores of the Gujarati Language proficiency test. (3) No significant difference was found between the mean scores of Primary Teacher Trainees of rural habitat and urban habitat Primary Teacher Trainees on Total Scores of the Gujarati Language proficiency test. (4) No significant difference was found between the mean scores of Primary Teacher Trainees of north, south, east and western area zone of Primary Teacher Trainees on Total Scores of the Gujarati Language proficiency test. Gender, Types of Institutions and Habitat variable are not found significant, so all Gujarati Language proficiency test is useful to find Gujarati Language proficiency in same manner.||Dr. Shilpa K. Patel|
|12||Teaching: Concept, Relation with Learning, as a System of ActionAbstract – In critically reviewing research from phenomenographic, approaches to teaching and learning, academic literacy and social practice approaches, I will argue that each of these approaches separates teaching from learning in some way and in doing so treats academics and students as if they are engaged in separate processes. I will examine the implications of this separation for the explanations that are offered by research into teaching and learning in higher education before considering whether other approaches, less commonly used in research into teaching and learning in higher education, offer a more interactive way of understanding the relationship between teaching and learning. You can learn by trial & error, by observation, by experience, by own intelligence/rational thinking, from mistakes, etc. without needing to be “taught” formally. Teaching is just one of the ways that can be adopted in order to learn.||Prof. Bhavin H. Patel|
|13||Issues in Information Technology EducationAbstract – Technology can affect education in many ways. There are just as many negative points as positive. Negative points may be that the ‘over’ use of technology makes kids lazy, in the way they use language, which may show in class work, exams, etc. This can be a problem in their learning and can affect some students a lot. This is because of the use of I’m’s and social networking sites, where children will link the use of computers in the classroom and in lessons to where they have used them at home. A positive point is that nowadays it is kind of essential that computers are used for homework, (and class work). Without computers kids would not be able to do a lot of their work, for example homework is now set to be done of different websites etc. (this can be a problem however if a less advantaged student does not have a computer, which is another thing to take into account).||Ronak Soni|
|14||The Role of Information Technology in Teacher EducationAbstract – In 2008, the National Education Association reported that 19 states had technology requirements for teacher certification. As use of technology in work and daily life increases, so does the importance of teaching students how to use technology while they are in school. The U.S. Department of Education has funded programs for more than a decade to help schools and education colleges integrate technology into curriculum because of the awareness that both new and older teachers need training in it. Technology use has been limited to administrative functions for years, but there is more technology available in schools and it is helping students learn.||Mr. Raju Pargi|
|15||Role and Significance of ICT in EducationAbstract – There is a significant role of ICT and internet in our life, especially in the educational activities, education authorities should be wise enough in implementing the strategies to empower ICT in supporting the teaching and learning process in the classroom. ICT is not just the bloom of the educational activities, but also it will be the secondary option to improve the effective and meaningful educational process. The main purpose of the Strategy for Information and Communication Technology Implementation in Education is to provide the prospects and trends of integrating information and communication technology (ICT) into the general educational activities.||Mr. Harshad Prajapati|
|16||The Role of CTEs and IASEs towards Professional Awareness of TeacherAbstract – The quality of education system is dependent, to a large extent, on the teachers. The quality of teachers is dependent, to a large extent, on the system of teacher education. It is heartening to note that the concern for raising the quality and status of teacher’s education has caught the attention of the nation and the same is reflected in the National Policy on Education (NPE)-1986 and Programme of Action (POA)-1992. After adoption of NPE-1986 in pursuance of its provisions of teacher education, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) of Restructuring and Reorganization of Teacher Education was approved in October, 1987, by the Government of India. The five components of this CSS are;
1. Setting up of District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs) to organize pre-service and in-service courses for elementary school teachers and for personnel working in nonformal and adult education.
|Mrs. Binalkumari J. Patel and Mr. Rajeshkumar G. Chaudhari|
|17||Effect of Remedial Teaching on Elevating Learning of Teacher Trainees of B.Ed. CollegeAbstract – The objectives of the present research study were: (i) To study the level of effectiveness of ‘Remedial ’ of teacher trainees; (ii)To study the effect of Remedial of teacher trainees in relation to following background variables: (a) Gender; (b) Academic Qualifications and (iii) Geographical Locations. Hypotheses of the present investigation were: Ho1:The teacher trainees have higher mean score of Remedial on Teacher Performance Scale; Ho2: There is no significant difference between Male Teacher Trainees and Female Teacher Trainees on the Remedial Scale Total Mean Scores on Remedial Scale; Ho3: There is no significant difference between Graduate Teacher Trainees and Post Graduate Teacher Trainees on the Remedial Total Mean Scores on Remedial Scale; Ho4: There is no significant difference between Teacher Trainees of Rural Area and Teacher Trainees of Urban Area on the Remedial Total Mean Scores on Remedial Scale. Variables of the study were: (i) Dependent Variable: Remedial Test; (ii) Independent Variable: Teacher Educators’ Perception; and (iii) Moderate Variables: (a) Gender; (b) Academic Qualifications; and Geographical Location. Research Area: The present research study was conducted taking sample from Grant-in-aid college of Mehsana City of North Gujarat. Research Design: The present research was Descriptive Survey by its nature. Population and Sample of the Study: The population of the study was the Teacher Trainees of Grant-in-aid college of Mehsana City. The sample for the study was selected by using purposive sampling method from Swami Vivekananda Sarvodaya Bank Education College (Grant-in-aid) of Mehsana City. Research Method: In the present investigation survey method was employed. Tools of the Study: To collect the data for the present investigation the investigator had constructed the Remedial Scale using seven scale measurements. Data Collection: Data for the present research was collected by the investigator herself. Statistical Treatment: For the calculation of the data, the researcher had employed the formulas of Mean, Standard Deviation, and t-value. Findings: (i) Teacher Trainees was found to be higher than the average scores on Remedial Scale; (ii) No significant difference was found between the mean scores of Male Teacher Trainees and Female Teacher Trainees on total Scores of the Remedial Scale; (iii) The mean scores of Post Graduate Teacher Trainees were found to be significantly higher than the Graduate Teacher Trainees on Remedial Scale. (iv) No significant difference was found between the mean scores of Rural Teacher Trainees and Urban Teacher Trainees on Total Scores of the Remedial Scale.||Dr. Pravina K. Patel|
|18||Theories of TeachingAbstract – Learning theories are conceptual frameworks that describe how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed, and knowledge and skills retained. It’s very important for teacher to acquire the principals of teaching theories. The author wants to introduction of the basic theories of learning through this article.||Dr. Asha Chaudhary|
|19||Environmental Problems and Its RemedyAbstract – Nature is a combination of mutual relations. Nature means the result of interactions among different elements of nature like this never ending universe, the world of stars, the whole earth(this world), this atmosphere, water, the world of living beings, and other so many worlds. The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on the Earth or some region thereof. It is an environment that encompasses the interaction of all living species. Environment is total sum of all impressions impacting all the living beings and their development
In modern English usage, the word “environs” is used as a noun to mean “the surrounding area” (Without having once seen the sun shine on the city or its environs). So the “environment” is the things that “environ” us, that encircle or surround us, whether just within a few feet or on the Earth as a whole (air, plants, animals, etc.). Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air, water, and climate, as well as energy are all the parts of the environment. The author wants to convey the ways to stop the various types of pollution via this article.
|Devasi M. Chandravadiya|
|20||Personality and Its Factors in Educational PerspectiveAbstract – Personality is a term that has many general meanings. Sometimes the word refers to the ability to get along well socially. For example, we speak of experiences or relationships, which are said to give a person “more personality.” The term may also refer to the most striking impression that an individual makes on other people. We may say, ‘she has a shy personality’. To a psychologist, personality is an area of study that deals with complex human behaviour, including emotions, actions, and cognitive (thought) processes. Psychologists study the patterns of behaviour that make individuals different from one another. The word personality is used not only in the field of psychology, but can be applied in most of the other fields of one day-to-day life. A good deal of research has been done on the topic but no final conclusions have been drawn as regards the nature of personality. Education plays a vital role for the viewpoint of personality. Education turns the person from good to best in the external and internal level. Here; I want to introduce some factors of personality in the context of Education.||Mr. Rajendra Rathod|
|21||Teaching Students with Intellectual DisabilitiesAbstract – When we teach children with intellectual disabilities, we need to keep in mind several factors. First of all we need to set goals that are most important for the child. Learning the names of the planets may not be as important as learning about how plants grow. Next we need to make materials and set up the environment so that it supports the child’s learning. Finally we need to use some teaching strategies to teach and motivate the child to learn. Here we explore a few effective teaching strategies for students with intellectual disabilities.||Mr. Yogeshkumar P. Pateliya|
|22||An Impact of Teaching through Virtual Reality Based Multimedia Package on Achievement in Chemistry Subject of Students of Standard-XIAbstract – Virtual reality is becoming increasingly important as a learning tool in the school as well as in university. Recent research has investigated the use of an Immerse a Desk in an effort to teach students to better understand concepts that do not fit with their pre-existing conceptualizations by guiding them through a series of exercises that confront their pre-existing knowledge with alternative ideas. For example, young students are quick to disbelieve their teachers when they are told that the atoms or molecules are spherical. For most young students, the molecule is simply flat 2d picture of text book, and they do not have the cognitive capacity, nor the conceptual firepower, to make the leap from what they see and experience (a flat picture of molecule) to what they do not see. For this reason, charting the strengths and limits of virtual reality is vital for educational technology. In this research, researcher has constructed software in chemistry subject on the basis of virtual reality in a unit of chemistry subject of standard 11thand examined the effect on the achievement of students’ chemistry subject.||Mr. Gaurang Parmar|
|23||Preface to Write the Review of Previous StudiesAbstract – The literature review identifies flaws or holes in previous research which provides justification for the study. Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified. A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question. The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis. Here the author conveys how to write the review of previous Studies through this article.||Prof. Prabhatbhai M. Kasra|
|24||A Study of the Effectiveness of the R.O.C.A.M. and the S.O.C.A.M. for the Achievement of Linguistic ConceptsAbstract – A model can come in many shapes, sizes, and styles. It is important to emphasize that a model is not the real world but merely a human construct to help us better understand real world systems. Teaching of Gujarati language, the mother tongue is a very important in school education. Many students, their parent and even some teachers consider the certain concepts very difficult. The reason of this problem is that those particular concepts are not taught through the relevant methods. The present study is about teaching of concepts of grammar of Gujarati language in the special model based classrooms. For developing the understanding of concepts among the students the concept achievement model developed by Bruner, Goodnow and Austin in 1967 is very important. The present study was carried out to investigate whether the Reception oriented method of Concept Attainment of teaching is more effective or the Selection oriented method of Concept Attainment is more effective for the students’ academic achievement.||Falguni J. Gajjar|
|25||The Gel Growth of Pure and Mixed Strontium and Manganese Tartrate CrystalsAbstract – Several tartrate compounds deserve special attention due to their applications; for example; manganese tartrate crystals being temperature sensitive find applications to sense temperature changes; strontium tartrate find application in the tracer compound in ammunition units. The attempt is made to grow pure and mixed Strontium and Manganese crystals by single diffusion gel growth technique using silica hydrogel. The coloration and morphology of the grown crystals changed upon changing the composition of the crystals. The FT-IR spectroscopic study confirmed the presence of C=O, C-O, O-H and metal-oxygen bonds. However, the absorptions due to metal-oxygen bond vibration changed systematically on varying the composition of manganese in the crystals. The powder XRD study indicated a flip in the structure of mixed crystals from strontium tartrate type to manganese tartrate type on increasing the content of manganese in the mixed crystals. The results are discussed.||Divyang H.Gandhi|
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